S. Berliner, III's berliner-ultrasonics.org Ultrasonics Page keywords = ultrasonic ultrasound cavitat cavitate cavitating cavitation ultraschall sonde ultrasonique sonotrode acoustic sonic sound wave ultra liquid processing Ultrasonic Industry Association UIA bubble shock wave clean immersi vapor degreas weld join bond sew seal solder insert stak drill grind machin cut extru form spin sonochemi react accelerat pollut abat toxi waste treat beneficiat remediat particl dispers disrupt homogeniz homogenis emulsif dissol degas foam defoam sparg phaco phaeco lithotript liposuct prophyla history Narda microwave home.att.net

Updated:   10 Feb 2014; 10:40 ET   [Page converted 10 Feb 2010;
    original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]
Update info on the top on ALL pages for your convenience.

URL:  http://berliner-ultrasonics.org/u-s.html
[was at "home.att.net/~Berliner-Ultrasonics/u-s.html" or
berliner-ultrasonics.home.att.net/u-s.html"]

S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
Popularizer of Science and Technology
Rail, Auto, Air, Ordnance, and Model Enthusiast
Light-weight Linguist, Lay Minister, and Putative Philosopher


Honorary Life Member*
Support and
join the UIA

[New 2004 Logo
all rights reserved to UIA]

04 UIA Logo

[Please note that I am an independent consultant, NOT a manufacturer;
I WAS Director of Technical Services for Heat Systems-Ultrasonics
(now Misonix) for many years.
The Misonix SONICATOR line of ultrasonic liquid processors is now
manufactured by Qsonica, LLC, q.v.]



S. Berliner, III's

Ultrasonics Page

ULTRASONICS

INDEX to ULTRASONICS

PLEASE NOTE:  If some internal links refuse to work,
please click on Back and scroll down.

[Please also note the alternative spelling of American usage "homogenize"
vis--vis the British usage "homogenise", etc.]

note-rt.gif - it was my original intention to use the main "home" or "index" page of this site for this purpose but the coverage of ultrasonics has become too extensive and complex even for me to follow; thus there is now a more-detailed index, which is in two forms.  The first part is a straight-forward index of the ultrasonics pages, brought forward from the site index page and amplified.  The second part is a linked alphabetical index to all or most of the terms used herein.

On the main Ultrasonics Page (this page):

    Applications List.

    Keywords (Applications) Index.

    Probe-type Ultrasonic Processing Equipment.

SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF OTHER PAGES:

    more-detailed index;

index of the ultrasonics pages, and
linked alphabetical index

    SONOCHEMISTRY   new (03 Feb 2012)

    AL-1C - "CONDENSED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING"
      (A Layperson's Explanation of a Complex Letterhead)

    AL-1P - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING".
      (A Non-Technical Explanation of a Complicated Letterhead)

    AL-1V - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC CAVITATION"
      (A Non-Technical Explanation of "Cold Boiling"

    Power vs.Intensity.

    AL-4 - AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENT.

    Call for Contributions for Book.

    More on Cavitation.

    AL-2 - "ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES -
      BENEFICIATION OF SLURRIES AND FINE-PARTICLE SUSPENSIONS
        [CERAMICS, COAL & ORES, COATINGS, COLUMN PACKINGS,
            SINTERING, SLIPS].     AM-1 - "ULTRASONIC STERILIZATION and DISINFECTION".

    UM-1 - "ULTRASONICS, HEARING, and HEALTH"

    Keywords (Applications) Index - moved to this main page.

    What's New?

    Quick Links for Ultrasonic Probe Manufacturers

    ULTRASONIC CLEANING {in process}.

    ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY {in process}.

    ULTRASONICS BIBLIOGRAPHY
      Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 1 - Reference Books on Acoustics,
          Vibration, and Sound.
      Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 2 - Sonochemistry.
      Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 3 - Selected Articles.

Other pages are shown on the Ultrasonic Index page.


You are invited to visit the ULTRASONIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION home page.


CALL FOR CONTRIBUTIONS:  I am writing a book on "High-Intensity Ultrasonic Technology and Applications" (intended for Marcel Dekker's "Mechanical Engineering Series", edited by Profs. Lynn L. Faulkner and S. Bradford Menkes).  This book will focus on the practical application of power (high intensity) ultrasonics, the use of ultrasonic energy to change materials.  Contributions are welcome.


THE CAVITATION BUBBLE

Larry Crum's Cavitation Bubble

[image from University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (Lawrence Crum, Ph.D.)
- bubble diameter approximately 1mm]


ULTRASONICS

[Please note that over the many years since this site was begun (30 May 1996), I have abandoned the formal academic usage of
"the author" and "your Webmaster" in favor of the more informal first person singular "I" and "me".]

I shall define "ULTRASONICS" as the application of sound at extremely high intensity and high frequency (normally above human hearing, 20kHz - 20,000 cycles per second - and above) to change materials.  The term "MEGASONICS" is now being used to describe frequencies of 1,000,000Hz (1,000kHz) and above.

There are other types of "ULTRASOUND", especially those used for Imaging and Sonar, Characterization of Materials and NDE (Non-Destructive Evaluation), pest-control (supposedly), and so forth; these do NOT change materials and are not covered herein.  This series of pages is concerned only with changing materials with ultrasonics.

Such change can clean, homogenize, and accelerate both physical and chemical reactions, among many other things.

That is a key phrase worthy of repetition:

CAVITATION ACCELERATES BOTH PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS.

However, PLEASE NOTE - ultrasonic processing is an energy- and cost-intensive means of changing materials through the application of extremely-concentrated acoustic energy; it is not to be considered for application unless ordinary means fail.  In other words, don't use it to heat food when a pan on a stove will work or to smash frozen peas when a mallet will serve.  DO use it for highly-unit-cost-intensive materials that can not be processed by any normal means.  Ultrasonics works very well indeed for phæ'co-emulsificcation (cataract removal), dental prophylaxis (calculus scaling), and lithotriptry (kidney stone removal); it is not cost effective for ordinary automotive carburetors or home oil burner nozzles.   rev (10 Feb 2014) [My apologies - words to this effect were here once; this caveat is now restored as of 29 Dec 2013]

[As a perhaps-humorous aside, here, I have used my small ultrasonic probe with a microtip at dinner parties to most-dramatically (and effectively) mix oil and water for salad dressing;
such a device might well make a wonderful, if somewhat expensive, gift for the executive or technologist who "has everything"!]
  added (10 Feb 2014)


APPLICATIONS/OPERATIONS

Using the keywords, here are just some of the many applications/operations that are commonly performed (or facilitated) using ultrasonics:

PARTIAL LIST OF APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONIC ENERGY
==================================================

      (High-intensity applications, only)

BONDING OPERATIONS:
Welding - Joining - Sewing - Sealing - Insertion - Staking - Soldering

MACHINING OPERATIONS:
Drilling - Grinding - Cutting

FORMING, FORGING, and CASTING OPERATIONS:
Extruding - Spinning - Static and Continuous Casting

CHEMICAL and PHYSICAL OPERATIONS:
Sonochemistry - Reacting (physical and chemical) - Accelerating Reactions - Pollution Abatement - Toxic Waste Treatment - Beneficiation of Ores - Remediation - Particle Handling [dispersion, agglomeration, suspension, column packing, sinters, fine ceramics, electronic insulators (resistors, capacitors), 20% volume reduction] - Disruption/Sonolysis - Homogenization - Emulsification - Dissolution - Degassing - Bubble Fusion

CLEANING OPERATIONS:
Surface Cleaning, Preparation, and Treatment - Enhancement of Surfactancy and Detergency - Vapor Degreasing - Turbidity Measurement

MEDICAL/SURGICAL OPERATIONS:
Phaecoemulsification (cataract removal) - Dental Prophylaxis (scaling - tartar removal) - Lithotriptry (removal of liver or gall stones) - Liposuction - Debridement of Wounds - Surgery - Cautery

MEDICAL/THERAPEUTIC OPERATIONS:
"Diathermy" (deep heating) - Inhalation Therapy - Skin Cancer Treatment

AEROSOL OPERATIONS:
Humidification (lace, flour, Legionella) - Spray Drying - Evaporative Cooling - Carburetion and Combustors

MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONS:
Levitation, Foaming (sparging) and Defoaming - Destructive and Constructive Testing (erosion, cleaning, accelerated corrosion and reaction) - Forensics and Archaeology [potsherds, bone cleaning, selective erosion (serial number restoration)]


PROCESSING

For a complete novice to technology, go first to A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING (A Non-Technical Explanation of a Complicated Letterhead) and then to A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC CAVITATION (A Non-Technical Explanation of "Cold Boiling").

Those with a smattering of technical knowledge can go to CONDENSED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING (A Layperson's Explanation of a Complex Letterhead).

A word here about the terms "Ultrasonic Processing" vs. "Ultrasonic Liquid Processing" - the former refers to any method of changing materials using ultrasonic (high-frequency acoustical) energy; the latter refers specifically to methods of changing materials using ultrasonic (high-frequency acoustical) energy in a liquid (a liquid to be processed or the parent liquor used to carry solids to be processed).  Some processing, such as drying and levitation, can be accomplished in air or other gaseous media.  I have denigrated the latter term ("Ultrasonic Liquid Processing") because, while the most common form of ultrasonic processing, it is too limited in scope and too limiting for the imagination.

CLEANING

[see the Ultrasonic Cleaning page for more detail]

ACTIVE TANKS

Cleaning is most commonly accomplished by immersing objects in a tank to which are fasten transducers that energize the walls or bottom of the tank and generate cavitation in the liquid.  Shock waves clean surfaces of parts and assemblies by accelerating detergency of cleaning agents in the bath and by mechanically blasting contaminants off the surfaces.

IMMERSIBLE TRANSDUCERS

An immersible transducer is a radiating device sealed in a housing which can be submerged in a liquid bath to energize the liquid to produce cavitation.  An immersible transducer placed in a still tank turns that tank into an ultrasonic cleaner.  The immersible transducer is, in effect, a standard tank everted (turned inside out) with the radiating surface on the outside and the transducers on the inside.

Other forms of ultrasonic cleaning include Ultrasonic Vapor Degreasing, Surface Wave Technology for cleaning Printed Circuit Boards, and High-intensity Cleaning of Porous Media, Surfaces for NDE, and Deep Holes.


KEYWORDS (Applications) INDEX

Latest list update: 06 Jul 99
(moved from Page 3)
[for hardware (non-applications), see GLOSSARY, * = added {date}]

- - - • - - -

APPLICATION:

      abatement				fine particle dispersion
      acceleration fluidization (Br. fluidisation)
      agglomeration food dehydration
      agitation forming
      atomization (Br. atomisation) fractionation
      beneficiation grinding
      biological cell disruption homogenization (Br. homogenisation)
      bleaching insertion
      blending joining
      bonding levitation
      catalysis liquids processing
      cavitation machining
      cell disruption, biological mixing
      cleaning nebulization (Br. nebulisation)
      compaction particle size reduction
      curing pollution abatement
      cutting processing
      deagglomeration reflowing (hot melt adhesive)
      deflocculating scission
      degassing separation
      degreasing size reduction
      dehydration soldering
      disaggregation solids processing
      disintegration solubilization (Br. solubilisation)
      dispersion sonocatalysis
      disruption sonochemistry
      dissociation sonolysis
      dissolution sonoluminescence
      drying staking
      emulsification streaming
      enhancement surface processing (as in cleaning)
      erosion surgical
      extraction suspension
      fatigue testing tissue disruption
      filtration enhancement welding (metals, plastics)
- - - • - - -

(this list will NOT be updated - see instead the alphabetical index.



Probe-type Ultrasonic Processing Equipment

Until more illustrative material is added, let the following temporary terminology and visualization guide suffice:

TEXT and IMAGES © S. Berliner, III - 1998/1999 - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

{Note that these devices are also known as "sonoprobes" or "sonotrodes" outside the U. S.
and that they look quite similar to equipment used for ultrasonic welding/bonding -
however, the sensing and control systems are drastically different.}

Typ. U/S System
Typical Ultrasonic Processing System

The energy from the house/lab/plant lines (mains) is transformed from 110/220V AC at 60/50Hz to 20KHz (20,000 cycles per second) and controlled in the GENERATOR (or Power Supply), sent to the CONVERTOR (or Transducer) where it is changed into mechanical energy by the TRANSDUCER crystals (if electrostrictive) or TRANSDUCER Stack of laminated nickel shims (if magnetostrictive) and passed to the HORN (or tool), going through one or more amplification stages (STEPS) and ending up at the TIP (which may be integral to the HORN or removable), the end of which is the RADIATING SURFACE.  This face radiates the acoustic energy into the fluid (liquid bath or gaseous sample).

In normal ultrasonic liquid processing, the tip is immersed in the sample and activated, with processing occurring in the sample liquid in the cavitation zone under the tip as shown in this diagram:   new (04 Sep 2010)

Ultrasonic Liquid Processing Diagram
Ultrasonic Liquid Processing Diagram
(Diagram 04 Oct 2010 by and © 2010 S. Berliner, III)

The technical details of how the tip is energized are shown in this diagram:

Convertor-Stack-Horn Layout
Convertor-Stack-Horn Layout
(electrostrictive shown)
[Click on picture for larger image]

[Material on Cup Horns and other specific types of probes moved to Page 4a.]

More about Probe-type Ultrasonic Processing Equipment and Frequency can be found on Page 4a.


ULTRASONIC PROCESSING - AL-1C - CONDENSED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING
      (A Layperson's Explanation of a Complex Letterhead) {and Business Card!}
          (Moved to Ultrasonics page A).


ULTRASONIC PROCESSING AL-1P, A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING
      (A Non-Technical Explanation of a Complicated Letterhead)
          {Moved to Page A}.


AL-1V - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC CAVITATION"
      (A Non-Technical Explanation of "Cold Boiling")
          moved to Ultrasonics Continuation Page 1A).


Quick Links to Major Ultrasonic Probe Manufacturers

For your convenience (and their benefit), I listed here three of the top manufacturers of ultrasonic probes for changing materials (NOT sensing probes); this list is neither exclusive nor exhaustive but represents firms with which I have dealt closely and which I can wholeheartedly recommend (moved to Ultrasonics page 4).


Brain Storming -

      bright ideas, pipe dreams, pie-in-the-sky?

    Here is where I will put ideas that I have not tried or which have not been carried forward
      or for which I can not find substantiation in my capacious memory or voluminous files:

Grain refinement (grain as in crystalization, NOT food grasses) - I speak to this in a small way under ultrasonic processing of molten metals, but there is much work that might be (and may, indeed, have been) done in this area.  Gradual reduction of cavitation in a melt will/should result in far better grain structure, finer dendritic formation, and smaller grain size.

Similarly, coarse ice formation in water can/should be slowed or prevented and microcrystalline or amorphous ice result.

In 1989, the idea of achieving "cold" fusion in the collapsing cavitation bubble popped into my head during the Pons/Fleischman flap but they did not respond to my suggestion; as of 2002 it was under serious investigation (see Ultrasonics and Nuclear Fusion).

This is the stuff of dreams - the place of devil's advocacy - seek and ye shall find - ask away; hey, you never know (what pearls of wisdom or insight are trapped under all the decaying grey matter)!

However, there is this caveat: ultrasonic processing is a highly energy-intensive method and should only be considered when standard means are not effective.


For more information, please contact S. Berliner, III.


Call for Contributions

For the forthcoming book, "High-Intensity Ultrasonic Technology and Applications", on the application of power (high intensity) ultrasonics, the use of ultrasonic energy to change materials, I solicit input and refer you to Continuation Page 1 where details of this request have been moved.

Please note that a far-more detailed explanation of ultrasonic processing, as well as other technical literature, is available at no charge to consultation clients.  However, as what I believe to be a public service, I shall be adding more of my monographs on ultrasonics on this site; watch for them in the index (above).


You may wish to visit Continuation Page A, Continuation Page 1, Continuation Page 2, and Continuation Page 3 with more on ultrasonics, as well as the Ultrasonics Cleaning page {in process} and the Ultrasonics Glossary page {also in process}.


Those persons interested in SONOCHEMISTRY might wish to look at
Prof. Kenneth S. Suslick's and Shiga University's Sonochemistry pages.


The author gratefully acknowledges inclusion of these pages
in INTUTE: Science, Engineering and Technology
[formerly EEVL - the Enhanced and Evaluated Virtual Library
The Internet Guide for Engineering, Mathematics and Computing
(previously the Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library)
a service of the Heriot-Watt University funded by the JISC.]



LEGACY

  What happens to all this when I DIE or (heaven forfend!) lose interest?  See LEGACY.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

See Copyright Notice on Berliner-Utrasonics home page.



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