S. Berliner, III's berliner-ultrasonics.org Ultrasonic Cleaning Continuation Page 1 keywords = " ultrasonic ultrasound cavitat ultraschall sonde ultrasonique clean immersi vapor degreas acoustic sonic sound wave ultra liquid processing sonotrode Ultrasonic Industry Association UIA bubble shock wave vapor degreas weld join bond sew seal solder insert stak drill grind machin cut extru form spin sonochemi react accelerat pollut abat toxi waste treat beneficiat remediat particl dispers disrupt homogeniz emulsif dissol degas foam defoam sparg phaco phaeco lithotript liposuct prophyla history home.att.net "
Updated:  13 Jul 2012, 18:00  ET
    [Created 09 Apr 2002;
original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]

Update info on the top on ALL pages for your convenience.
URL http://berliner-ultrasonics.org/usclean1.html
(formerly http://home.att.net/~Berliner-Ultrasonics/usclean1.html 
moved to this domain on 04 Mar 2010)

S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

SONOCHEMISTRY * REACTION ACCELERATION * DISRUPTION
HOMOGENIZATION * EMULSIFICATION * POLLUTION ABATEMENT
DISSOLUTION * DEGASSING * FINE PARTICLE DISPERSION
BENEFICIATION OF ORES AND MINERALS
CLEANING OF SURFACES AND POROUS MATERIALS

also see
Keywords (Applications) Index

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
Popularizer of Science and Technology  


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S. Berliner, III's

Ultrasonic Cleaning
Continuation Page 1

[See "Keywords (Applications) Index" on Page 3.]

Specializing in brainstorming and devil's disciplery for new products and
reverse engineering and product improvement for existing products.

{"Imagineering"}


INDEX

PLEASE NOTE:  If some of the internal links on this page refuse to work,
please click on Back and scroll down.

On the main Ultrasonics Page:
    Applications List.
    Keywords (Applications) Index - moved from Page 3 on 12 Feb 00.
    Probe-type Ultrasonic Processing Equipment.
    Quick Links for Ultrasonic Probe Manufacturers.
    Brain Storming - bright ideas, pipe dreams, pie-in-the-sky?

On Ultrasonics Page A:
    AL-1C - "CONDENSED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING"
        (A Layperson's Explanation of a Complex Letterhead).
    AL-1P - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING".
    Failure Modes in Horns.
    Ultrasonic Soldering, Galvanizing, etc..

On Ultrasonics Page 1:
        AL-1V - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC CAVITATION"
            (A Non-Technical Explanation of "Cold Boiling").
        TUBULAR HORNS (Radial Radiators).

On Ultrasonics Page 1A:
    AL-4 - AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENT.
    Call for Contributions for Book.

On Ultrasonics Page 2:
    More on Cavitation.
    AL-2 - "ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES -
        BENEFICIATION OF SLURRIES AND FINE-PARTICLE SUSPENSIONS
        [CERAMICS, COAL & ORES, COATINGS, COLUMN PACKINGS, SINTERING, SLIPS].

On Ultrasonics Page 3:
    AM-1 - "ULTRASONIC STERILIZATION and DISINFECTION".
    UM-1 - "ULTRASONICS, HEARING, and HEALTH"
    Keywords (Applications) Index.
    What's New?

On Ultrasonics Page 4:
    Foaming and Aerosoling - moved 28 May 02 from Page 1A.
    Ultrasonic Propulsion (Propulsive Force) - Moving Material.
    Ultrasonic Fountains - Atomization, Nebulization, Humidification,
        Misting, Particle Creation and Sizing.
    Ultrasonics and Nuclear Fusion.

On the ULTRASONICS CLEANING page:
    ULTRASONIC CLEANING {in process}.
        Immersible Transducers.
        What's New?

On this Ultrasonic Cleaning Continuation Page 1:
    Calibration of Ultrasonic Cleaning Tanks.
    MAGNETOSTRICTIVE TRANSDUCERS - moved from main Ultrasonic Cleaning page on 13 Feb 2005.
    APPLICATION PAPER AP-3 - SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLEANING JEWELRY,
            CLOISONNÉ, ETC., IN HOME AND HOBBY USE.
        CLEANING SOLUTIONS
        DETERGENTS
        PRECAUTIONS
        SUGGESTIONS
        CLOISONNÉ

note-rt.gif [The information on Cleaning Solutions, Detergents, Precautions, and Suggestions, applies equally to any home or hobby uses, as well as to many light industrial applications.]
    Quick Links to Major Ultrasonic Cleaner (Bath) Manufacturers.   new (22 Aug 2011)

On the ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY page:
    ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY {in process}.

ULTRASONICS BIBLIOGRAPHY
        Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 1 - Reference Books on Acoustics, Vibration, and Sound.
        Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 2 - Sonochemistry.
        Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 3 - Selected Articles.


You are invited to visit the ULTRASONIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION home page.


CALL FOR CONTRIBUTIONS:  I am working on a book for Marcel Dekker on "High-Intensity Ultrasonic Technology and Applications" (in their "Mechanical Engineering Series", edited by Profs. Lynn L. Faulkner and S. Bradford Menkes).  This book will focus on the practical application of power (high-intensity) ultrasonics, the use of ultrasonic energy to change materials.  Contributions are welcome.


ULTRASONIC CLEANING
Continuation Page 1

{this is a work in process}



Calibration of Ultrasonic Cleaning Tanks

        (Some Thoughts on Calibration)

No test that measures contaminant on a membrane (as collected by filtering the effluent or samples from an ultrasonic cleaning tank) can be as effective as one that measures the contaminant remaining on the surface of the workpiece; cavitation erodes the surface of the workpiece, thus loading the membrane with extranous particulates.  That erosion may be minimal or may be serious and the acceptability of such can only be determined by microscopic analysis of the surface of the workpiece.

Ultrasonic cleaners not readily calibrated; their output is not generally that accurate and then the conditions in the tank, even without the load, are too variable.  Add variations caused by the the mass and geometry of the load and then the surface conditions and chemistry and then, on top of all that, the wild variations of effect caused by minute variations in positioning and arraying in the tank and you have true chaos.

It is far better to do microanalysis of the surface of the workpiece before and after cleaning.

Quoting from MORE ON CAVITATION on Ultrasonics Continuation Page 2, "one of the earliest tests for activity in an ultrasonic cleaning tank was to immerse aluminum foil, energize the tank, and observe the perforation of the foil by cavitation erosion".  This is simple, inexpensive, and reasonably repeatable.  However (and this is a major caveat), the placement of the foil, usually in strips hung vertically, and the parameters of the foil [thickness, hardness, surface finish, and condition (crinkled vs. smooth)] are so critical that only empirical experimentation can give an acceptable level of confidence.

Various hydrophone devices and wands are available to sweep through the tank; they are all subject to variations of placement and, again, can only give an approximation of the results to be obtained.

Just by way of background, the reason that placement of test strips or devices is so critical is that standing waves are set up in the active tank and nodes (zones of reinforcement and cancellation) occur such that effect will vary accordingly.  To counter this, manufacturers have resorted to stratagems such as varying frequency and multiple frequencies (sometimes merely coverups for operational instability).  However, just placing a hydrophone or wand in a tank changes the conditions; no matter how successful such features, no test of an empty tank, or for a loaded tank, for that matter, can compare with testing of the resultant cleaned surface.


MAGNETOSTRICTIVE TRANSDUCERS

Most cleaning and processing work currently is done with electrostrictive (crystal) transducers; however, for maximum strength, output, and temperature-resistance, magnetostrictive transducers are often utilized.  They differ from electrostrictive transducers in that, instead of being pulsed by an alternating electrical current, they are pulsed by an alternating magnetic field.  A stack of thin shim stock (usually nickel) is brazed together and surrounded by a magnetic coil; alternating the polarity of the current passed through the coil alternates the polarity of the magnetic field.  Nickel (or any other magnetostrictive material) expands and contracts in altrnating magnetic fields (much as electrostrictive crystals do in an alternating electrical field).  Shims are used instead of solid blocks to avoid destructive eddy currents.  The stacks are usually of a high aspect ratio (long and thin) and are kept from ballooning by a strap at the nodal point.  In keeping with their high power ratings, magnetostrictive transducers are usually brazed together and often brazed to the tank bottom or to a block bolted to the tank.  They also may require air or liquid cooling to function at high power and elevated temperature; however, there is a positive corollary.  Magnetostrictive transducers, able to function at high temperatures, are ideal for use on solder pots and dip-galvanizing tanks.  The magnetic coils are not shown for simplicity of description but the following illustration shows how a stack might look for cleaning and for processing devices:

Magnetostrictive Transducers
[illustration and © by S. Berliner, III 2012 - revised 13 Jul 2012]

The cleaning stack is shown with a negative-gain front driver (typical or normal) while the processor stack is shown with a positive-gain (amplifying) front driver (again, typical or normal); circumstances may dictate use of simple, cylindrical drivers or even the opposite style.



APPLICATION PAPER AP-3

Original Date:  01 Aug 1991
Rewritten:  09 Apr 2002

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLEANING JEWELRY,
CLOISONNÉ, ETC., IN HOME AND HOBBY USE

note-rt.gif [The information on Cleaning Solutions, Detergents, Precautions, and Suggestions, offered below, applies equally to any home or hobby uses, as well as to many light industrial applications.]

This information supplements the standard cleaning information supplied
with general purpose ultrasonic cleaning tanks.  There are certain
precautions to observe and procedures to follow which will give optimum
results when cleaning jewelry, cloisonné ware*, timepieces, and other
like articles.

* - see Paragraph 5, below.

1.  CLEANING SOLUTIONS - Low sudsing household cleaning agents, such as ammoniated AJAX, MR. CLEAN, or JANITOR-IN-A-DRUM, are often quite effective, easily obtained, and relatively inexpensive.  Solution strength should be determined empirically.  Too much or too little detergent will decrease cleaning efficiency.  As a rule of "thumb", the water should feel only just slightly "slippery" when rubbed between thumb and forefinger.  Decrease the concentration if the water feels slick and increase it if the feeling is more like that of plain water.  Allow the solution to outgas by running each fresh batch for about 15 minutes.  Use warm (not hot) water or use a heated tank.  Unheated tanks will stabilize at about 110°F (43°C) and heated tanks are preset at about 140°F (60°C).  This optimizes the higher detergency at elevated temperature and the greater cavitation effect of ultrasound at lower temperature.

2.  DETERGENTS - A special detergent especially recommended for home use [DYNASOAP 104, formerly available from Heat Systems (now Misonix, Inc.)] was recommended in the original of this monograph.  It was a highly concentrated cleaning agent, slightly alkaline, for general use, phosphate-free and biodegradeable, and held dirt in suspension*, and rinsed freely in tap water.  There were two other types of DYNASOAP detergents for home and hobby use.  DYNASOAP 105 was an acidic cleaning agent for stain removal and for cleaning metals; it cleaned rust, oxide, and smut from all metals, especially stainless steel, chromium, and nickel (overuse might have etched aluminum).  DYNASOAP 107 was an alkaline cleaning agent for cleaning glass and precious stones; it was best for oils, grease films, fingerprints, and buffing compounds.  In the absence of these products, appropriate ALCONOX products could be substituted:

                Alconox, Inc.
                9 East 40th Street, Suite 200
                New York, NY 10016
                212-532-4040
                FAX: 212-532-4301

                e-mail:  cleaning@alconox.com

                URL:  "http://www.alconox.com/main/mainmenu.html".

3.  PRECAUTIONS -

            a.  Precious metals with a significant amount of copper alloying
                and any other materials to be cleaned should be tested before
                cleaning to determine the compatibility of the material with
                the cleaning agent.

            b.  NEVER clean pearls in an ultrasonic cleaner!  Pearls are a
                natural accretion of calcium carbonate which may delaminate and
                dissolve in the tank!

            b.  NEVER clean paste jewelry in an ultrasonic cleaner!  The paste
                may dissolve in the cleaning solution!

            c.  NEVER clean opals in an ultrasonic cleaner!  Opals are a
                heavily fractured stone (the fracture planes reflect light and
                give the beautiful coloration for which opal is noted).
                Ultrasonic action (cavitation) in the tank may cause the
                fracture planes to extend and the stone may crumble in the
                tank!

            d.  Do not place items to be cleaned directly on the bottom of the
                tank.  It is activately vibrating and can abrade the surface of
                the item.  Suspend items in the bath or use a suspended beaker
                or the perforated tray made for the purpose.

4.  SUGGESTIONS -

            a.  Cleaning copper, or high-copper alloys, will remove the patina
                and leave a bright pink pure copper color.  Heating the metal
                in warm vegetable oil supposedly restores the darker color.

            b.  When cleaning old jewelry with very small stones (baguettes,
                chips, melée, etc.) always clean the item in a glass beaker,
                rather than directly in the tank.  Small stones are often loose
                and held in place only by dried hand cream, skin oils, and
                soap, and may fall out when these contaminants are removed by
                ultrasonic cleaning.  Stones may be hard to find in the large
                tank, but are easily seen in the bottom of a beaker.

            c.  To use strong acid or caustic solutions without harming the
                stainless steel tank, clean items in a glass beaker as
                indicated below, taking all necessary precautions against
                personal injury.

            d.  To clean items in the solid tray or in beakers, make up a
                solution of warm water to which a small amount of mild soap or
                detergent has been added.  Fill the tank only with the amount
                of solution which will rise to 1" (25mm) from the tank rim when
                the tray or beaker is in place.  Avoid overflowing.  Fill the
                tray or beaker with the desired cleaning solution and allow to
                degas as noted above for the tank itself.

            e.  Watches, clocks, and other timepieces may be cleaned in the
                ultrasonic cleaner, BUT they will then be completely without
                corrosion resistance or lubrication.  Do not clean timepieces
                unless you are able to relubricate and protect the delicate
                surfaces.

5.  CLOISONNÉ - Special instructions for ultrasonic cleaning methods
            unique to cloisonné enamelling can be found in the book CLOISONNÉ -
            The Art of Cloisonné Enamelling and Jewelry Making, by Felicia Liban
            and Louise Mitchell, Chilton Book Co., 1980, Library of Congress
            Catalog Card No. 80-957, ISBN 0-8019-6900-x.

                Ms. Felicia Liban
                251-37 43rd Avenue
                Little Neck, New York  11363

                Mrs. Louise Mitchell
                {formerly of
                  Glen Head, New York}

- - - * - - -

For more information, please contact S. Berliner, III.

© Copyright S. Berliner, III 1991, 2002 (all rights reserved) Updated: 09 Apr 2002, 17:50

- - - * - - -

* - SEQUESTRATION - not in the original paper, but something that should have been, is the term "sequester".  Sequestration is that action that "held dirt in suspension" as noted in Para. 2., above.  A few words on sequestration are in order here.  The whole point of cleaning (ultrasonic or not) is to remove contaminants, and surfactancy and detergency enhance that ability, as noted.  However, dislodging contaminants and allowing aqueous solutions to "sheet off" cleanly without leaving a film behind is not enough.  It is also necessary to assure that particulates are not left behind on the cleaned surface and that is where sequestrants come into play; they have the ability to hold particulates in suspension so that they rinse off with the cleaning solution.  It is imperative that, when choosing a cleaning solution for applications with particulate contamination, one picks an agent with high sequestering ability.  As this is not a treatise on chemistry, you are advised to quiz your cleaning solution supplier about how they achieve maximum sequestering action and then test, TEST, and TEST again!


Quick Links to Major Ultrasonic Cleaner (Bath) Manufacturers

For your convenience (and their benefit), I list here several of the top manufacturers of ultrasonic cleaners (baths, NOT chemicals); this list is neither exclusive nor exhaustive but represents firms with which I have dealt and which I can recommend:

[in alphabetic order - no other precedence intended]

    Blue Wave Ultrasonics, Inc.
        http://www.bluewaveinc.com/
    960 S. Rolff Street
    Davenport, Iowa  52802
    Phone:  563-322-0144 / 800-373-0144
    FAX:  563-322-7180
    e-mail:  info@bluewaveinc.com

    Branson Ultrasonics Corporation
            http://www.bransonultrasonics.com/
                http://www.bransoncleaning.com/
    41 Eagle Road
    Danbury, Connecticut  06813-1961
    Phone:  203-796-0400
    FAX:  203-796-9838
    e-mail:  info@bransoncleaning.com (for BRANSONIC tabletop units) or
        infoquest@bransonultrasonics.com (for industrial units)

    Crest Ultrasonics Corp.
        http://www.crest-ultrasonics.com/
    P.O. Box 7266 Scotch Road
    Trenton, New Jersey  08628
    Phone:  800-99-CREST (800-992-7378)
    e-mail:  {on-line}

    Sonicor, Inc.
        http://www.sonicor.com/
    50 Capital Drive
    Wallingford, Connecticut  06492
    Phone:  203-265-6048 / 800-864-5022
    FAX:  203-793-1668
    e-mail:  customerservice@sonicor.com

    Ultrasonic Power Corporation.
        http://www.upcorp.com/
    239 East Stephenson Street
    Freeport, Illinois  61032
    Phone:  815-235-6020 / 800-575-0168
    FAX:  815-232-2150
    e-mail:  sonic@upcorp.com

    Zenith Mfg. & Chemical Corp.
        http://www.zenith-ultrasonics.com/
    85 Oak Street
    Norwood, New Jersey  07648
    Phone:  800-432-SONIC (800-432-7664)
    FAX:  201-768-6999
    e-mail:  sales@zenith-ultrasonics.com

[There is no guarantee made whatsoever that these listings are
correct, complete, or current.]
(Tradenames are noted solely for information and remain the intellectual property of the manufacturer.)



MUCH MORE TO FOLLOW


You may wish to visit the main Ultrasonics page, et seq., as well as the Ultrasonics Glossary page {also in process}.



prevpage.gif frstpage.gif nextpage.gif
To tour the Ultrasonics pages in sequence, the arrows take you from the main Ultrasonics Page (Ultrasonics index, Applications List, Keywords/Applications Index, and Brainstorming) to Page A ("Condensed Guide to Ultrasonic Processing" and "A Popularized Guide to Ultrasonic Processing"), Page 1 (with "A Popularized Guide to Ultrasonic Cavitation" and Tubular Horns), Page 1A ("Amplitude Measurement", Free Bubbling, Bubble Entrapment, Foaming and Aerosoling, and Extenders), Page 2 (More on Cavitation and "Ultrasonics and Fine Particles"), Page 3 ("Ultrasonic Sterilization and Disinfection","Ultrasonics, Hearing, and Health", Ultrasonics and Living Organisms, and What's New?), Glossary Page, Cleaning Page (Immersible Transducers and What's New?), Bibliography Page 1 (Reference Books on Acoustics, Vibration, and Sound), Bibliography Page 2 (Sonochemistry), and Bibliography Page 3 (Selected Articles).



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