S. Berliner, III's berliner-ultrasonics.org Ultrasonics Page 8 keywords = " ultrasonic ultrasound cavitat ultraschall sonde ultrasonique sonotrode acoustic sonic sound wave ultra liquid processing Ultrasonic Industry Association UIA bubble shock wave clean immersi vapor degreas weld join bond sew seal solder insert stak drill grind machin cut extru form spin sonochemi react accelerat pollut abat toxi waste treat beneficiat remediat particl dispers disrupt homogeniz emulsif dissol degas foam defoam sparg phaco phaeco lithotript liposuct prophyla history Narda microwave fusion propulsi fluid filtration home.att.net "
Updated:  18 Jan 2014, 13:00 ET
    [original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]
Update info on the top on ALL pages for your convenience.
URL http://berliner-ultrasonics.org/uson-8.html
(formerly http://home.att.net/~Berliner-Ultrasonics/uson-8.html 
moved to this domain on 06 Mar 2010)

S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

SONOCHEMISTRY * REACTION ACCELERATION * DISRUPTION
HOMOGENIZATION * EMULSIFICATION * POLLUTION ABATEMENT
DISSOLUTION * DEGASSING * FINE PARTICLE DISPERSION
BENEFICIATION OF ORES AND MINERALS
CLEANING OF SURFACES AND POROUS MATERIALS

also see
Keywords (Applications) Index

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Specializing in brainstorming and devil's disciplery for new products and
reverse engineering and product improvement for existing products.

{"Imagineering"}

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
Popularizer of Science and Technology  


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S. Berliner, III's

berliner-ultrasonics.org

Ultrasonics Page 8


  You may wish to visit the main page on ultrasonics.


NOTE:  This page "evaporated" from my server (perhaps aliens abducted it?) on 13 Sep 1999 and has been recreated from a back-up copy - please accept my apologies if I have inadvertently overlooked any typographical errors which might have crept in in the process of recreating the document.


INDEX

{Truncated to save space}

PLEASE NOTE:  If some of the internal links on this page refuse to work,
please click on Back and scroll down.

On the main Ultrasonics Page (the first page):

    Applications List

    Keywords (Applications) Index

    Probe-type Ultrasonic Processing Equipment.

    Brain Storming - bright ideas, pipe dreams, pie-in-the-sky?

On Ultrasonics Page A

    AL-1C - "CONDENSED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING"
      (A Layperson's Explanation of a Complex Letterhead)

    AL-1P - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING".
        (A Non-Technical Explanation of a Complicated Letterhead)

On Ultrasonics Page 1:

    AL-1V - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC CAVITATION"
        (A Non-Technical Explanation of "Cold Boiling"

    ULTRASONIC DEGASSING.

    TUBULAR HORNS (Radial Radiators).

    CARE of TIPS (Radiating Faces).

On Ultrasonics Page 1A:

    AL-4 - AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENT.

    Call for Contributions for Book

On Ultrasonics Page 2 (the preceding page):

    More on Cavitation

    AL-2 - "ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES -
      BENEFICIATION OF SLURRIES AND FINE-PARTICLE SUSPENSIONS
      [CERAMICS, COAL & ORES, COATINGS, COLUMN PACKINGS,
        SINTERING, SLIPS]

On Ultrasonics Page 3:

    AM-1 - "ULTRASONIC STERILIZATION and DISINFECTION"

    UM-1 - "ULTRASONICS, HEARING, and HEALTH"

    Ultrasonics and Living Organisms

    Keywords (Applications) Index
        moved to the main page on 12 Feb 2000.

    What's New?

    Continuous Flow Cells [moved from the main page to page 3
        and then to this page (below) on 24 May 2007]

On Ultrasonics Page 8 (this page):

    Continuous Flow Cells [moved from the main page to page 3
        and then to this page (below) on 24 May 2007]

    The Use of Ultrasonic Probes in Fuel Research
        [moved from this page 8 to page 5 on 06 Mar 2010]   rev.gif (29 Dec 2013)

On Ultrasonics Page 9:
    Ultrasonic Processing of Molten Metals new (18 Jan 2014)
    Bubble Point Test
    Apparent Viscosity   new (18 Jan 2014)

On the Ultrasonic Cleaning page:

    ULTRASONIC CLEANING {in process}.

    Immersible Transducers.

    What's New?

On the Ultrasonics Glossary page:

    ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY {in process}.

ULTRASONICS BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 1 - Reference Books on Acoustics,
        Vibration, and Sound.
    Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 2 - Sonochemistry.
    Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 3 - Selected Articles.


You are invited to visit the ULTRASONIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION home page.


CALL FOR CONTRIBUTIONS:  I am writing a book on "High-Intensity Ultrasonic Technology and Applications", on the practical application of power (high intensity) ultrasonics, the use of ultrasonic energy to change materials.  Contributions are welcome.


THE CAVITATION BUBBLE

Larry Crum's Cavitation Bubble

[image from University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (Lawrence Crum, Ph.D.)
- bubble diameter approximately 1mm]


Continuous Flow Cells

    (moved from the main ultrasonics page to this page on 24 May 2007).

Here is a means of using a horn in a continuous flow system; one or two (or more) liquids are pumped into the "CONTINUOUS FLOW CELL", mix and are processed in the annulus, controlled by an adjustable orifice which can be moved in and out axially and with interchangeable orifice plates, thus giving full control over the process parameters:

Continuous Flow Cell
[Image by and © 2007 S. Berliner, III - all rights reserved]
(Thumbnailed image - click on picture for larger image)

Continuous Flow Cell

Note that the cell has a seal at the horn's nodal point, where there is little, if any, lateral (radial) motion; this is a critical point - restricting the horn with a clamping force throws it out of resonance, generates tremendous heat and noise, and can cause loss of seal integrity.  Most flow cells are made either of polycarbonate and rated for low pressure or of stainless steel rated for 20psi.  Details of threading and such are not shown here; these drawings are for concept, only.

Taking the flow cell a step further, the author combined the features of a flow cell with a so-called FLOW-THROUGH HORN, one which is cross and axially drilled and came up with a novel (the U. S. Patent Office agreed) means of getting guaranteed uniform mixing of two components by passing one through the horn so that the liquid (Fluid "A") exits the horn through the tip in the center of the cavitational field where it meets the other liquid coming radially inward from the body of the cell.  Because the second liquid (Fluid "B") travels radially inward, all aliquots pass along a radius of equal length, thus assuring equal sonication and mix with Fluid "A" directly in the cavitation field at the end of the horn:

Processing Cell
[Image by and © 2007 S. Berliner, III - all rights reserved]
(Thumbnailed image - click on picture for larger image)

Ultrasonic Processing Cell

The processing cell is covered by United States Patent # 5,032,027 of July 16, 1991, "Ultrasonic fluid processing method", and United States Patent # 5,026,167 of June 25, 1991, "Ultrasonic fluid processing system".  Both were granted to the author (S. Berliner, III) and assigned to Heat Systems, Incorporated (now Misonix Incorporated).

[Note that patents may now be viewed conveniently at Google Patents.]

In the regular flow cell, the two liquids mix randomly and aliquots can flow directly through without significant (if any) mixing.

In one of the many other embodiments in both patents, the two fluids are injected coaxially against the radiating face of a standard (not Flow Through) horn, as shown in this sketch:

Continuous Flow Cell 2
[Image by and © 2007 S. Berliner, III - all rights reserved]
(Thumbnailed image - click on picture for larger image)

Alternate Ultrasonic Processing Cell

In this cell, the relative spacing of the two orifices and the radiating face are critical yet easily adjusted (again, seals and means of adjustment are not shown).  Optimum annuli spacing and relative flow rates must be determined empirically.

Note that the direction of flow is chosen to avoid entrapment of unprocessed or non-homogenous aliquots in the cells.


AM-9 APPLICATIONS MONOGRAPH 03 June 2007

THE USE OF ULTRASONIC PROBES
IN FUEL RESEARCH

[moved from this page 8 to page 5 on 06 Mar 2010]   rev.gif (29 Dec 2013)



You may wish to visit the main Ultrasonics page, Continuation Page A, Continuation Page 1, Continuation Page 2, and Continuation Page 4, with more on ultrasonics, as well as the Ultrasonic Cleaning page {in process} and the Ultrasonics Glossary page {also in process}.


prevpage    frstpage    nextpage
To tour the Ultrasonics pages in sequence, the arrows take you from the main Ultrasonics Page (with full index) to Pages A, 1, 1A, 2, 3, through this page, Glossary Page, Cleaning Page, and Bibliography Pages 1, 2, and 3 (see Index, above).



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