S. Berliner, III's berliner-ultrasonics.org Ultrasonics Page 9 keywords = " ultrasonic ultrasound cavitat ultraschall sonde ultrasonique sonotrode acoustic sonic sound wave ultra liquid processing Ultrasonic Industry Association UIA bubble shock wave clean immersi vapor degreas weld join bond sew seal solder insert stak drill grind machin cut extru form spin sonochemi react accelerat pollut abat toxi waste treat beneficiat remediat particl dispers disrupt homogeniz emulsif dissol degas foam defoam sparg phaco phaeco lithotript liposuct prophyla history Narda microwave fusion propulsi fluid filtration bubble point home.att.net "
Updated:  20 Jan 2014; 22:00 ET
[Page created 23 May 2011
    [original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]
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URL http://berliner-ultrasonics.org/uson-9.html

S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

SONOCHEMISTRY * REACTION ACCELERATION * DISRUPTION
HOMOGENIZATION * EMULSIFICATION * POLLUTION ABATEMENT
DISSOLUTION * DEGASSING * FINE PARTICLE DISPERSION
BENEFICIATION OF ORES AND MINERALS
CLEANING OF SURFACES AND POROUS MATERIALS

also see
Keywords (Applications) Index

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Specializing in brainstorming and devil's disciplery for new products and
reverse engineering and product improvement for existing products.

{"Imagineering"}

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
Popularizer of Science and Technology  


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S. Berliner, III's

berliner-ultrasonics.org

Ultrasonics Page 9


  You may wish to visit the main page on ultrasonics.


INDEX

{Truncated to save space}

PLEASE NOTE:  If some of the internal links on this page refuse to work,
please click on Back and scroll down.

On the main Ultrasonics Page (the first page):

    Applications List

    Keywords (Applications) Index

    Probe-type Ultrasonic Processing Equipment.

    Brain Storming - bright ideas, pipe dreams, pie-in-the-sky?

On Ultrasonics Page A

    AL-1C - "CONDENSED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING"
      (A Layperson's Explanation of a Complex Letterhead)

    AL-1P - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING".
        (A Non-Technical Explanation of a Complicated Letterhead)

On Ultrasonics Page 1:

    AL-1V - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC CAVITATION"
        (A Non-Technical Explanation of "Cold Boiling"

    ULTRASONIC DEGASSING.

    TUBULAR HORNS (Radial Radiators).

    CARE of TIPS (Radiating Faces).

On Ultrasonics Page 1A:

    AL-4 - AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENT.

    Call for Contributions for Book

On Ultrasonics Page 2 (the preceding page):

    More on Cavitation

    AL-2 - "ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES -
      BENEFICIATION OF SLURRIES AND FINE-PARTICLE SUSPENSIONS
      [CERAMICS, COAL & ORES, COATINGS, COLUMN PACKINGS,
        SINTERING, SLIPS]

On Ultrasonics Page 3:

    AM-1 - "ULTRASONIC STERILIZATION and DISINFECTION"

    UM-1 - "ULTRASONICS, HEARING, and HEALTH"

    Ultrasonics and Living Organisms

    Keywords (Applications) Index
        moved to the main page on 12 Feb 2000.

    What's New?

    Continuous Flow Cells [moved from the main page to page 3
        and then to this page (below) on 24 May 2007]

On Ultrasonics Page 8:

    Continuous Flow Cells [moved from the main page to page 3
        and then to this page (below) on 24 May 2007]

    The Use of Ultrasonic Probes in Fuel Research

On Ultrasonics Page 9 (this page):

    Ultrasonic Processing of Molten Metals new (18 Jan 2014)
    Bubble Point Test
    Apparent Viscosity   new (18 Jan 2014)

{Page index truncated to save space - see the Ultrasonic Index Page}

On the Ultrasonic Cleaning page:

    ULTRASONIC CLEANING {in process}.

    Immersible Transducers.

    What's New?

On the Ultrasonics Glossary page:

    ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY {in process}.


You are invited to visit the ULTRASONIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION home page.


CALL FOR CONTRIBUTIONS:  I am writing a book on "High-Intensity Ultrasonic Technology and Applications", on the practical application of power (high intensity) ultrasonics, the use of ultrasonic energy to change materials.  Contributions are welcome.


ULTRASONIC PROCESSING OF MOLTEN METALS

new (15 Jan 2014)

Grain refinement (grain as in crystalization, NOT food grasses) - ultrasonic processing of molten metals There is much work that might be (and may, indeed, have been) done in this area.  Gradual reduction of cavitation in a melt will/should result in far better grain structure, finer dendritic formation, and smaller grain size.


THE BUBBLE POINT TEST

new (23 May 2011)

[The Bubble Point Test is used to assure pore size when cleaning fine metallic mesh fluid filters with ultrasonic probes (as well as baths).]

There are two primary tests applied to reusable fluid filter elements to determine if they are suitable to be returned to service.  One is a dynamic FLOW TEST to assure that the pores are all or mostly unplugged.  The other, which will be expanded upon here, is the BUBBLE POINT TEST which determines the size of the largest pore, thus indicating the maximum particle size that might pass the medium (absolute filter rating).

In a rigid re> usable filter medium, such as Pall Corporation's sintered PSS™ Porous Stainless Steel or RIGIMESH® woven wire mesh, the absolute filtration rating can be no lower than the diameter of the largest opening through the medium.  Other factors such as tortuosity of path and van derWaal's and other attractive forces might shift the absolute rating slightly but the maximum poresize is a rather definitive limit.

If a filter medium is fully wetted and immersed in a test liquid, gas (usually air) introduced under the medium will remain in place until the static head (pressure) of the gas exceeds that in the largest pore, at which time the gas will escape through that pore, "unwetting" it such that a stream of gas will follow.  Cylindrical elements are rotated under the liquid surface to test all portions of the medium. Free bubbling - open pore - see BP and HIPS lit.


APPARENT VISCOSITY

Apparent Viscosity" is a term coined by me (SB,III) referring to the way in which cavitating horns/tips opetrate in thick slurries.  Unlike truly viscous liquids, which load the tip much as high pressure does, slurries, even slurries so thick as to appear solid, primarily load the tip only as much as the parent liquor, with the entrapped/entrained solids contributing little or no load on the tip.  Although I have done no significant study of this effect, nor have I seen others work on it, I have observed the phenomenon many timea and have my own iodea of what is at work.  I believe that the ultrasonic energy passes virtually unhindered through the parent liquor, depending only somewhat on the particle size and spacing.  As I note in AL-2 - "ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES - BENEFICIATION OF SLURRIES AND FINE-PARTICLE SUSPENSIONS, "Large volumes of - - - particles can be suspended in liquids by direct sonication. - - - sifting the particles in slowly while the liquid is being sonicated will greatly increase the proportion of solid to liquid, even to the extent that particles can touch all surrounding particles.  In this latter case, the effect is that of creating a fluidized bed."  No matter how thick the slurry, cavitation will occur around the tip and reach out into the surrounding slurry.

Further, it appears to me that the particles, especially if they are spherical, reflect and concentrate the energy, much as glass beads do in open beakr applications. AL-2 ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES Jan 98 ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES - Pargrapgh 1.f.   {to be continued}   new (18 Jan 2014)


You may wish to visit the main Ultrasonics page, Continuation Page A, Continuation Page 1, Continuation Page 2, and Continuation Page 4, with more on ultrasonics, as well as the Ultrasonic Cleaning page {in process} and the Ultrasonics Glossary page {also in process}.


prevpage    frstpage    nextpage
To tour the Ultrasonics pages in sequence, the arrows take you from the main Ultrasonics Page (with full index) to Pages A, 1, 1A, 2, 3, through this page, Glossary Page, Cleaning Page, and Bibliography Pages 1, 2, and 3 (see Index, above).



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