S. Berliner, III's berliner-ultrasonics.org Magnetostrictive Ultrasonics Page keywords = " ultrasonic ultrasound magnetostrict cavitat ultraschall sonde ultrasonique sonotrode acoustic sonic sound wave ultra liquid processing Ultrasonic Industry Association UIA bubble shock wave clean immersi vapor degreas weld join bond sew seal solder insert stak drill grind machin cut extru form spin sonochemi react accelerat pollut abat toxi waste treat beneficiat remediat particl dispers disrupt homogeniz emulsif dissol degas foam defoam sparg phaco phaeco lithotript liposuct prophyla home.att.net "
Updated:  05 Mar 2010, 18:15  ET
    [Created 23 Aug 2002;
original AT&T Worldnet Website begun 30 May 1996.]

Update info on the top on ALL pages for your convenience.
URL http://berliner-ultrasonics.org/usonmagn.html
(formerly http://home.att.net/~Berliner-Ultrasonics/usonmagn.html 
moved to this domain on 05 Mar 2010)

S. Berliner, III
Consultant in Ultrasonic Processing
"changing materials with high-intensity sound"

SONOCHEMISTRY * REACTION ACCELERATION * DISRUPTION
HOMOGENIZATION * EMULSIFICATION * POLLUTION ABATEMENT
DISSOLUTION * DEGASSING * FINE PARTICLE DISPERSION
BENEFICIATION OF ORES AND MINERALS
CLEANING OF SURFACES AND POROUS MATERIALS

also see
Keywords (Applications) Index

[consultation is on a fee basis]

Specializing in brainstorming and devil's disciplery for new products and
reverse engineering and product improvement for existing products.

{"Imagineering"}

Technical and Historical Writer, Oral Historian
Popularizer of Science and Technology

[Please note that I am an independent consultant, NOT a manufacturer;
I WAS Director of Technical Services for Heat Systems-Ultrasonics
(now Misonix) for many years, q.v.]


Support and
join the UIA

[New 2004 Logo
all rights reserved to UIA]

04 UIA Logo



INDEX

(Truncated to save space)

PLEASE NOTE:  If some internal links refuse to work,
please click on Back and scroll down.

On the main Ultrasonics Page (the preceding page):

    Applications List.

    Keywords (Applications) Index - moved from Page 3 on 12 Feb 00.

    Probe-type Ultrasonic Processing Equipment.

    Brain Storming - bright ideas, pipe dreams, pie-in-the-sky?

On the Ultrasonics Page A:

  ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Power vs.Intensity.

    AL-1C - "CONDENSED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING"

(A Layperson's Explanation of a Complex Letterhead)
    {moved from the main ultrasonics page on 05 Jan 2002}.

    AL-1P - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC PROCESSING".

(A Non-Technical Explanation of a Complicated Letterhead).

    Failure Modes in Horns.

    Ultrasonic Soldering, Galvanizing, etc.

On Ultrasonics Page 1 (the next page - created 12 Feb 00):

    AL-1V - "A POPULARIZED GUIDE TO ULTRASONIC CAVITATION"

(A Non-Technical Explanation of "Cold Boiling").

    TUBULAR HORNS (Radial Radiators).

    CARE of TIPS (Radiating Faces).

    ULTRASONIC DEGASSING.

On Ultrasonics Page 1A (rearranged 12 Feb 00):

    AL-4 - AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENT.

    Free Bubbling.

    Bubble Entrapment.

    Extenders.

    Call for Contributions for Book.

On Ultrasonics Page 2:

    More on Cavitation.

    AL-2 - "ULTRASONICS AND FINE PARTICLES -
        BENEFICIATION OF SLURRIES AND FINE-PARTICLE SUSPENSIONS
        [CERAMICS, COAL & ORES, COATINGS, COLUMN PACKINGS,

SINTERING, SLIPS].

On Ultrasonics Page 3:

    AM-1 - "ULTRASONIC STERILIZATION and DISINFECTION".

    UM-1 - "ULTRASONICS, HEARING, and HEALTH".

    Ultrasonics and Living Organisms.

    What's New?

On Ultrasonics Page 4:

    Foaming and Aerosoling - moved 28 May 02 from Page 1A.

    Ultrasonic Propulsion (Propulsive Force) - Moving Material.

    Ultrasonic Fountains - Atomization, Nebulization, Humidification,

Misting, Particle Creation and Sizing.

    Ultrasonics and Nuclear Fusion.

    Quick Links for Ultrasonic Probe Manufacturers (moved 10 Jul 2002).

On Magnetostrictive Ultrasonics Page (this page - created 23 Aug 02)

  Magnetostriction

  Giant Magnetostrictive Materials

On the Ultrasonic Cleaning Page:

    ULTRASONIC CLEANING {in process}.

    Immersible Transducers.

    What's New?

On the ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY page:

    ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY {in process}.

ULTRASONICS BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 1 - Reference Books on Acoustics,
    Vibration, and Sound.
Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 2 - Sonochemistry.
Ultrasonic Bibliography Page 3 - Selected Articles.


You are invited to visit the ULTRASONIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION home page.


CALL FOR CONTRIBUTIONS:  I am writing a book on "High-Intensity Ultrasonic Technology and Applications" (intended for Marcel Dekker's "Mechanical Engineering Series", edited by Profs. Lynn L. Faulkner and S. Bradford Menkes).  This book will focus on the practical application of power (high intensity) ultrasonics, the use of ultrasonic energy to change materials.  Contributions are welcome.


THE CAVITATION BUBBLE

Larry Crum's Cavitation Bubble

[image from University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (Lawrence Crum, Ph.D.)
- bubble diameter approximately 1mm]


Magnetostriction

As noted previously under Magnetostrictive Transducers on the Ultrasonic Cleaning page, and in the ULTRASONICS GLOSSARY, magnetostrictive materials expand and contract in an alternating magnetic field.

Unlike the more commonly-used electrostrictive (crystal) transducers; magnetostrictive transducers are often utilized for their greater maximum strength, output, and temperature-resistance.  They differ from electrostrictive transducers in that, instead of being pulsed by an alternating electrical current, they are pulsed by an alternating magnetic field.  A stack of thin shim stock (usually nickel) is brazed together and surrounded by a magnetic coil; alternating the polarity of the current passed through the coil alternates the polarity of the magnetic field.  Nickel (or any other magnetostrictive material) expands and contracts in altrnating magnetic fields (much as electrostrictive crystals do in an alternating electrical field).  Shims are used instead of solid blocks to avoid destructive eddy currents.  The stacks are usually of a high aspect ratio (long and thin) and are kept from balooning by a strap at the nodal point.  In keeping with their high power ratings, magnetostrictive transducers are usually brazed together and often brazed to the tank bottom (or stack) or to a block bolted to the tank (or stack).  They also may require air or liquid cooling to function at high power and elevated temperature; however, there is a positive corollary.  Magnetostrictive transducers, able to function at high temperatures, are ideal for use on solder pots and dip-galvanizing tanks.

Ignoring the destructive eddy-current problem for a moment, here is how a magnetostrictive material functions (a crude block is shown in cross-section for simplicity):

Magnetotstrictive Block - Expanding Magnetotstrictive Block - Neutral Magnetotstrictive Block - Contracting
(23 Aug 02 illustrations by and © 2002 S. Berliner, III - all rights reserved)

[The rows of circles represent the electrical coil generating the magnetic field]

Crude though these be, the illustrations show how the alternating field forces the material radially inward, which (because of conservation of mass) forces the ends outward, the material at rest, and the material responding elastically when the field reverses, pulling the ends inward.

Thus, the action is really no different than it is with electrostrictive devices.  The net result in either case is that the ends of the transducer move in and out cyclically.  If a front driver and tool (horn) are attached to one end, work can be performed.  As with electrostrictive devices, a "counterweight" (back driver) is required to provide a resonant body.

{preliminary - more to follow on magnetostriction, carrying forward the information already on Magnetostrictive Transducers.}


Giant Magnetostrictive Materials

A piezomagnetic material (a "lanthanide") was developed by the Naval Ordnance Lab [now the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC)] in Ames, Iowa, for use in sonar, that was found to have all the desirable properties of piezoceramics while exhibiting the strength and power capabilities of metallic magnetostrictive elements.  It is named TERFENOL-DŽ for its constituent metallic elements and the Lab; terbium (TER), iron (FE), Naval Ordinance Labs (NOL), and Dysprosium.

TERFENOL-DŽ is licensed to, and being actively developed by:

ETREMA Products, Inc.
2500 N. Loop Drive
Ames, Iowa 50010

515-296-8030

Among its many attrubutes (per Etrema):
 • HIGH STRAIN
 • HIGH FORCE
 • WIDE BANDWIDTH
 • HIGH RELIABILITY/UNLIMITED CYCLE LIFE
 • WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE
 • MICROSECOND RESPONSE TIME
{preliminary - more to follow on "giant magnetostrictive materials", specifically

"giant magnetostrictive lanthanides"

most commonly known as TERFENOL-DŽ.}



{more to follow on this topic}



For more information, please contact S. Berliner, III.


Call for Contributions

For the forthcoming book, "High-Intensity Ultrasonic Technology and Applications", on the application of power (high intensity) ultrasonics, the use of ultrasonic energy to change materials, I solicit input and refer you to the new Continuation Page 1 where details of this request have been moved.

Please note that a far-more detailed explanation of ultrasonic processing, as well as other technical literature, is available at no charge to consultation clients.  However, as what I believe to be a public service, I shall be adding more of my monographs on ultrasonics on this site; watch for them in the index.


You may wish to visit main ULTRASONICS page, Continuation Page 1, Continuation Page 2, and Continuation Page 3 with more on ultrasonics, as well as the Ultrasonics Cleaning page {in process} and the Ultrasonics Glossary page {also in process}.


Those persons interested in SONOCHEMISTRY might wish to look at
Prof. Kenneth S. Suslick's and Shiga University's Sonochemistry pages.


The author gratefully acknowledges inclusion of these pages
in INTUTE: Science, Engineering and Technology
[formerly EEVL - the Enhanced and Evaluated Virtual Library
The Internet Guide for Engineering, Mathematics and Computing
(previously the Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library)
a service of the Heriot-Watt University funded by the JISC.]



LEGACY

What happens to all this when I DIE or (heaven forfend!) lose interest?  See LEGACY.



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